Three circles theorems for Schrodinger operators on cylindrical ends and geometric applications
We show that for a Schr\"odinger operator with bounded potential on a manifold with cylindrical ends the space of solutions which grows at most exponentially at infinity is finite dimensional and, for a dense set of potentials (or, equivalently for a surface, for a fixed potential and a dense set of metrics), the constant function zero is the only solution that vanishes at infinity. Clearly, for general potentials there can be many solutions that vanish at infinity. These results follow from a three circles inequality (or log convexity inequality) for the Sobolev norm of a solution $u$ to a Schr\"odinger equation on a product $N\times [0,T]$, where $N$ is a closed manifold with a certain spectral gap. Examples of such $N$'s are all (round) spheres $\SS^n$ for $n\geq 1$ and all Zoll surfaces. Finally, we discuss some examples arising in geometry of such manifolds and Schr\"odinger operators.